Zero-Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs) are a popular cryptographic tool used in blockchain technology to help ensure privacy and security. There are two main types of ZKPs: ZK-SNARKs and ZK-STARKs.
ZK-SNARKs, which stands for Zero-Knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge, are a type of proof that allows one party to prove to another that a statement is true without revealing any additional information. This type of proof is used in cryptocurrencies like Zcash to protect transaction privacy.
On the other hand, ZK-STARKs, which stands for Zero-Knowledge Scalable Transparent Argument of Knowledge, are a more recent development in the field of ZKPs. They are designed to be more transparent and scalable than ZK-SNARKs, while still maintaining the same level of security and privacy.
One of the main differences between ZK-SNARKs and ZK-STARKs is their level of complexity. ZK-SNARKs require a trusted setup, which means that a group of individuals must generate a set of secret keys together. This process can be vulnerable to attack if any of the participants are compromised. ZK-STARKs, on the other hand, do not require a trusted setup, making them more secure and resistant to attack.
Another difference is their level of transparency. ZK-SNARKs are not transparent, meaning that it is difficult for anyone to verify the proof without access to the secret key. ZK-STARKs, on the other hand, are transparent, meaning that anyone can verify the proof without access to any secret information.
In terms of scalability, ZK-STARKs are designed to be more scalable than ZK-SNARKs. This is because ZK-STARKs are based on a simpler mathematical framework, which allows them to be implemented more efficiently on a larger scale.
The mathematical framework used in zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) is an important aspect to consider when comparing ZK-SNARKs and ZK-STARKs.
ZK-SNARKs are based on elliptic curve cryptography, which involves complex mathematical equations that are difficult to solve. The proof generated by a ZK-SNARK is a short string of data that can be verified by anyone who has access to the secret key. However, the process of generating the proof requires a trusted setup, which can be a vulnerability if any of the participants are compromised.
ZK-STARKs, on the other hand, are based on a different mathematical framework called polynomial commitment schemes. This framework is based on simpler mathematical equations that are easier to solve. A proof generated by a ZK-STARK is a much larger string of data than a ZK-SNARK proof, but it can be verified by anyone without the need for a secret key. Additionally, ZK-STARKs do not require a trusted setup, making them more secure and resistant to attack.
The difference in mathematical frameworks between ZK-SNARKs and ZK-STARKs has implications for their scalability as well. ZK-STARKs are designed to be more scalable than ZK-SNARKs because their mathematical framework is simpler and allows for more efficient implementation on a larger scale. This is important for blockchain technology, where scalability is a key concern for many use cases.
In summary, both ZK-SNARKs and ZK-STARKs are important tools in the field of blockchain technology. While ZK-SNARKs have been around longer and are more widely used, ZK-STARKs offer a promising alternative that is more secure, transparent, and scalable.
This article is drafted with the assistance by A.I. and referencing from the sources below :